Understanding Testicular Cancer: Types, Signs, and Risk Reduction

Understanding Testicular Cancer: Types, Signs, and Risk Reduction

18 April 2024
Posted By Dr. Aditi Aggarwal
Understanding Testicular Cancer: Types, Signs, and Risk Reduction

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare but highly treatable form of cancer that primarily affects young men. In this post, we'll explore the main types of testicular cancer, common signs to watch for, and strategies to reduce your risk.

Types of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer typically develops in the cells of the testicles, the male reproductive glands responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. There are two main types of testicular cancer:


Seminoma is the most common type of testicular cancer, accounting for approximately 40-45% of cases. It tends to grow slowly and is highly responsive to treatment, even in advanced stages.


Non-seminoma tumors comprise several subtypes, including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. These tumors may grow more quickly than seminomas and often require a combination of treatments.

Know the Signs

Early detection of testicular cancer greatly improves treatment outcomes. It's essential to be aware of the signs and symptoms that may indicate the presence of this disease. Common signs of testicular cancer include:

A lump or swelling in the testicle: This is often the first sign of testicular cancer. The lump may or may not be painful.

Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum: Some men may experience a dull ache or heaviness in the testicle or scrotum.

Changes in the size or shape of the testicle: Testicular cancer may cause one testicle to become larger or to change shape.

Fluid buildup in the scrotum (hydrocele): In some cases, testicular cancer may lead to the accumulation of fluid in the scrotum.

If you notice any of these signs or symptoms, it's essential to see a healthcare provider promptly for evaluation and diagnosis.

Reduce Your Risk

While the exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown, certain risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing this disease. However, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk:

Perform regular testicular self-exams: Familiarize yourself with the normal size, shape, and texture of your testicles and report any changes to your healthcare provider.

Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eating a balanced diet, staying physically active, and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol use can help reduce the risk of testicular cancer.

Protect against injury: Wear protective gear during sports or activities that could potentially lead to testicular injury.


Testicular cancer is a highly treatable form of cancer, especially when detected early. By understanding the main types of testicular cancer, knowing the signs and symptoms, and taking proactive steps to reduce your risk, you can protect your health and well-being. If you have any concerns or notice any changes in your testicles, don't hesitate to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance. Your proactive approach could make all the difference in catching and treating testicular cancer early.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Dr. Aditi Aggarwal has worked in radiation oncology for ten years, treating patients with thoracic cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, bone and soft tissue cancer, gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and neurological cancers.

As a medical doctor, Dr. Aditi Aggarwal holds an MBBS degree from Lady Hardinge Medical College Delhi, a MD degree in radiation oncology from VMMC and Safdarjang Hospital Delhi, as well as a post-doctoral diploma in cancer research from Catalyst Clinical Sciences in Pune.

Cancer is usually classified into four stages, with stage 0 being the earliest stage and stage IV being the most advanced. The stage of a cancer is an important factor in determining the prognosis and the best treatment options. Here's a brief overview of the different stages of cancer:

Stage 0: This is the earliest stage of cancer, and it refers to cancer that is still in its original place and has not spread to other parts of the body. It is also known as carcinoma in situ.

Stage I: This stage means that the cancer is still small and has not spread to other parts of the body. It may be treatable with surgery or other local treatments.

Stage II: At this stage, the cancer is larger and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. It may be treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy, or other systemic treatments such as chemotherapy.

Stage III: This stage means that the cancer has spread to nearby tissues or organs and/or to distant lymph nodes. Treatment may involve a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and/or systemic treatments such as chemotherapy.

Stage IV: This is the most advanced stage of cancer, and it means that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, bones, or brain. Treatment at this stage is typically palliative, meaning that it aims to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life, rather than cure the cancer.

It's important to note that the staging of cancer can vary between different types of cancer and different systems used to classify the stages. Your healthcare provider can give you more information specific to your situation.

There is no single vaccine that can prevent or cure all types of cancer. However, some vaccines can help prevent certain viral infections that can increase the risk of certain cancers, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which can help prevent HPV-related cancers such as cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancer.

Additionally, some cancers can be treated with a type of immunotherapy called cancer vaccines, which help stimulate the body's own immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. These vaccines are still in the experimental stage and are only available through clinical trials.

However, there are many things you can do to reduce your risk of developing cancer, such as eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding tobacco products, and getting regular cancer screenings. Your healthcare provider can give you more information on how to reduce your risk of cancer.

The symptoms of cancer can vary depending on the type and part of the body of cancer, as well as its stage. Some common symptoms of cancer include:

  • Fatigue
  • Pain that does not go away
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing or darkening
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent coughing or trouble breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Persistent hoarseness or sore throat
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as bloating or abdominal pain
  • Menstrual changes in women
  • Persistent skin changes, such as yellowing or darkening
  • Changes in a wart or mole
  • Persistent headaches
  • Persistent bone or joint pain
  • Persistent fatigue or weakness
  • Persistent nausea or vomiting

It's important to keep in mind that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, and not all of them are present in all cases of cancer. If you are experiencing any symptoms that are new or persist for a long time, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider to determine the cause and get appropriate medical attention. Early detection and treatment of cancer can often lead to better outcomes.

Through us, you can schedule a Dr. Aditi Aggarwal priority appointment. Request a callback or dial 7982047515 to reach us.